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THIN-FILM DEPOSITION TECHNIQUES

THERMAL EVAPORATION

Thin-film deposition through thermal evaporation, the stage is set with an ensemble of thermal evaporation sources typically various metals placed within a refractory vessel such as molybdenum boat, molybdenum/tungsten filament, graphite/molybdenum crucible. These sources employ resistive element heating to coax the base material into a vaporised state. As power courses through, the temperature ascends, gracefully ushering the material into the realm of vapour.

One of the highlights of this technique lies in its cost-effectiveness. Installation costs and equipment are relatively modest compared to other deposition methods. It's an accessible entry point into the world of thin-film deposition. Chamber pressure takes center stage, reduced to minimal levels to prevent unwanted chemical reactions. The goal is an unadulterated performance, where background gases don't intrude upon the delicate interplay between the film and bulk evaporant. A varient of the typical thermal evaporation process is reactive thermal evaporation technique. Carefully choreographed partial pressures of reactive gases introduce a new dimension. The result: films boasting a chemical composition distinct from the bulk material.

The basic configuration typically includes a boat, filament, or crucible source with typically water-cooled feedthroughs, cross-contamination shielding, shutters, and appropriately sized power supplies.

MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

Magnetron sputtering is a powerful and widely used thin-film deposition technique that plays a significant role in various industries, from electronics to optics. 

Magnetron sputtering gets its name from the magnetron—a device that uses magnetic fields to enhance the sputtering process. Inside the vacuum chamber, there are typically one or more circular cathodes (sputtering targets) made of the material to be deposited. The entire process unfolds within a vacuum chamber to eliminate any interference from external gases. The chamber is carefully controlled to create an environment conducive to thin film formation. The material to be deposited is in the form of a sputtering target. This target is bombarded with high-energy ions, typically generated from a plasma discharge. The ions knock atoms or molecules from the target material, creating a flux of particles. To create a plasma discharge, a low-pressure gas (typically argon) is introduced into the chamber. An electric field is then applied, ionizing the gas and forming a plasma. These ions are accelerated toward the sputtering target. The accelerated ions collide with the sputtering target with enough energy to dislodge atoms or molecules from the target material. This process is known as ion bombardment or sputtering.

The ejected material from the sputtering target condenses on a substrate, which is strategically placed within the chamber. The substrate can be varied depending on the application—glass, silicon, or other materials. The magnetic field created by the magnetron enhances the uniformity of the sputtering process. It extends the plasma region, ensuring a more even deposition on the substrate. By introducing reactive gases into the chamber, magnetron sputtering can be adapted for reactive deposition or reactive sputtering technique. This allows for the creation of compound thin films with different chemical compositions than the sputtering target.

 

Magnetron sputtering offers advantages such as high deposition rates, good adhesion, and the ability to deposit a wide range of materials. The enhanced control over the process makes it suitable for applications requiring precision and uniformity.In summary, magnetron sputtering is a versatile and precise technique for thin film deposition, playing a pivotal role in the production of coatings for electronic devices, solar cells, and various other advanced materials.

The basic configuration typically includes: one or many sputtering source with a target coating material, shutters, deposition gas injection and appropriately sized DC, Pulsed DC, and RF power supplies.

ELECTRON BEAM DEPOSITION

Electron-beam deposition provides the precision and excellence in thin-film deposition. Dive into a realm where solid materials transform into ethereal films with the touch of high-energy electrons. At the heart of our Electron Beam Deposition Systems is the Electron Gun which generates high-energy electrons, creating an electron cloud within the vacuum chamber. The material destined for deposition, be it a pellet or wire, takes center stage in the crucible. The material undergoes sublime sublimation, transitioning seamlessly from solid to vapor. The vaporized material follows a straight path, allowing for pinpoint accuracy in deposition directly onto the substrate.

6. Substrate as the Canvas: The substrate takes on the role of a canvas, strategically placed in the line of sight. Whether it's glass, silicon, or another material, the substrate becomes the recipient of the artistic deposition process.

Our Electron Beam Deposition Systems find their place across industries, from microelectronics to optical coatings. The ability to deposit thin films with unparalleled purity and precision makes them the go-to choice for applications demanding molecular perfection.

8. Vacuum Virtuosity: The entire performance unfolds in a vacuum, a virtuoso environment that eliminates interference from external gases. Our systems thrive in this controlled space, ensuring a deposition process free from contaminants. Optimizing conditions is our secret to creating uniform and conformal coatings. The controlled dance of the Electron Gun ensures that the thickness of the deposited film is a tailored masterpiece, meeting the exact requirements of each application.

10. The Finale: As the Electron Gun concludes its dance, the vaporized material gently descends onto the substrate, forming a thin film—a testament to precision, elegance, and molecular mastery.

Step into a world where science meets art, where high-energy electrons sculpt films with molecular precision. Our Electron Beam Deposition Systems redefine thin-film deposition, setting new standards for excellence in the realm of materials science. Welcome to a future where the extraordinary is the norm.

VACPRO VDS100
VACUUM DEPOSITION SYSTEMS

APPLICATIONS

LABORATORY & CHEMISTRY

  • Fully integrated deposition system

  • Supports RF/DC magnetron sputtering, thermal evaporation or LTE sources

  • Multiple sources sequential or co-deposition modes

  • Multiple process gas capability

  • Supports up to 100mm x 100mm or 150mm diameter substrates or smaller

  • Glovebox mating provisions provided

  • High deposition rate & high efficiency cathode

  • Simple and easy maintenance

  • Wide configuration options & customizable to the application requirements

LITHIUM BATTERY

MATERIALS & ORGANIC DEPOSITION

PEROVSKITE PHOTOVOLTAIC

RESOURCES

VDS100 Product Brochure

VDS100
VDS500
VACPRO VDS500
VACUUM DEPOSITION SYSTEMS
  • Fully integrated deposition system

  • Supports electron beam evaporation, RF/DC magnetron sputtering, thermal evaporation or LTE sources

  • Ion source substrate cleaning or assisted deposition

  • Multiple sources sequential or co-deposition modes

  • Multiple process gas capability

  • Supports up to 100mm x 100mm or 150mm diameter substrates or smaller

  • High deposition rate & high efficiency cathode

  • Simple and easy maintenance

  • Wide configuration options & customizable to the application requirements

APPLICATIONS

LABORATORY & CHEMISTRY

DOCUMENTATION

VDS500 Product Brochure

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